Impact of solar wind depression on the dayside magnetosphere under northward interplanetary magnetic field

Impact of solar wind depression on the dayside magnetosphere under northward interplanetary magnetic field

We present a follow up study of the sensitivity
of the Earth’s magnetosphere to solar wind activity using a
particles-in-cell model (Baraka and Ben Jaffel, 2007), but
here during northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF).
The formation of the magnetospheric cavity and its elongation
around the planet is obtained with the classical structure
of a magnetosphere with parallel lobes. An impulsive disturbance
is then applied to the system by changing the bulk
velocity of the solar wind to simulate a decrease in the solar
wind dynamic pressure followed by its recovery. In response
to the imposed drop in the solar wind velocity, a gap (abrupt
depression) in the incoming solar wind plasma appears moving
toward the Earth. The gap’s size is a 15RE and is
comparable to the sizes previously obtained for both Bz <0 and Bz =0. During the initial phase of the disturbance along the x-axis, the dayside magnetopause (MP) expands slower than the previous cases of IMF orientations as a result of the abrupt depression. The size of the MP expands nonlinearly due to strengthening of its outer boundary by the northward IMF. Also, during the initial 100 1t, the MP shrank down from 13.3RE to 9.2RE before it started expanding, a phenomenon that was also observed for southern IMF conditions but not during the no IMF case. As soon as they felt the solar wind depression, cusps widened at high altitude while dragged in an upright position. For the field’s topology, the reconnection between magnetospheric and magnetosheath fields is clearly observed in both the northward and southward cusps areas. Also, the tail region in the northward Correspondence to: S. Baraka (suleiman.baraka@gmail.com) IMF condition is more confined, in contrast to the fishtailshape obtained in the southward IMF case. An X-point is formed in the tail at 110RE compared to 103RE and 80RE for Bz =0 and Bz <0, respectively. Our findings are consistent with existing reports from many space observatories (Cluster, Geotail, Themis, etc.) for which predictions are proposed to test furthermore our simulation technique.

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